Content Tokyo – Special Lecture, AI × Creativity
③ Report on Hiroshi Yamakawa’s Talk
~Artificial Minds and Creativity~

A report on a special lecture, AI × Creativity, (see flash report here).
This piece will outline a talk on the theme of Artificial Minds and Creativity by Hiroshi Yamakawa. (Dr. Yamakawa is head of the Dwango Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and the chair of the nonprofit Whole Brain Architecture Initiative.)



■ The Singularity and Creative AI

I’ve been researching subjects surrounding brains and AI for a long time, and today I’d like to talk to you about the Singularity and Creative AI.
First of all, to give you a simple explanation of the Singularity, it will happen when AI exceeds the limits of human ability and human understanding. The AI we have currently available are incapable of setting off the Singularity. This is because contemporary AI have all been designed by humans, and thus it would be difficult for them to exceed the understanding of the humans who designed them. In other words, humans are currently acting as a limit on AI. In this case, they are creating an upper limit on the rate at which AI can evolve.
However, one day, AI entities will themselves become able to design new artificial intelligences, and the primary role of designer will pass from humans to AI.
When this happens, AI will be freed from the bottleneck of human limitation to enter a cycle of self-recursively developing their own intelligence, causing the pace of technological evolution to accelerate above anything we can imagine today. Some believe that this is one way in which the Singularity may come to pass.

With this as the backdrop, we can say that the two points of versatility and autonomy mentioned by Drs. Matsubara and Kurihara will be in place in such an environment. Versatility relates to the breadth of tasks one is able to tackle, which is to say, the ability to do many different things. Additionally, autonomy refers to the element of safely and effectively finding out about the world in a proactive way.
However, in reality, in order to implement autonomy, the entity would have to have at least some measure of ability to imagine things that it, personally, had not experienced. If an entity is unable to do that, it will not be able to act autonomously.
This is because if an entity can only conceive of things it has already experienced, it will have no way of predicting the risks entailed by new ideas or experiences. In other words, technologically speaking, versatility must be the foundation for autonomy.

■ The Process of Utilizing Creativity


Now then, allow me to explain my personal idea of the basic process for utilizing creativity.
I think there are three processes that go into being able to create. First, one must extract the component parts of the creative idea from various pieces of information and experience. Secondly, one must combine those component parts, altering their parameters, and searching through the possibilities before coming up with several candidate ideas. Thirdly and finally, one must effectively evaluate the ideas one came up with in order to arrive at the final creative product.
If we take this series of processes as an example, the second point regarding combining elements and searching for patterns, is an especially demanding task.
The method being used is one of drawing analogies, of taking knowledge from similar events. For example, using the knowledge that the earth revolves around the sun, to arrive at the relationship between atoms and electrons. This method has recently come to be known as transfer learning within the machine learning sphere of study, and research into narrowing the search area (prioritizing searches) is ongoing.

■ What is Mind Uploading?

 Now then, I’ve been doing research into the brain, so today I’d like to talk a little about the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a system in your brain for consolidating short-term memories. It performs the function of moving particularly strong or impactful short-term memories into the main memory of your cerebral neocortex over a period of about two months. The brain has two memory systems, and it is believed that when new ideas occur, they are created due to interaction between the short-term memories of the hippocampus and the older, more mature memories in the cerebral neocortex. In order to replicate a human brain, then, creative AI may also need to have two different memory systems.The hippocampus is only one such example. What I’m researching: mind-like AI (whole brain architecture), is the creation of an AI entity that has versatility and autonomy, by focusing on the unique characteristics and creativity of the human brain. As part of that research, I’m also putting my efforts towards developing the technology of mind uploading. The aim of this technology is to transfer a human mind to an artificial intelligence entity.
In order to succeed at such a feat, we’ll need to effectively combine the technology to map out human brain activity and the brain’s entire connectome (neural circuit diagram), and the technology to upload that data. There are many other difficult obstacles that will need to be surmounted in order to succeed, but I believe we will succeed, and that if we can create this AGI entity, we will really be able to bring Osamu Tezuka’s digital clone to life.

As a final thought, if we really are able to bring Osamu Tezuka’s digital clone to life, I think I’d like to hear some more of Tezuka’s philosophy and values about how humanity ought to go about living in a post-singularity world, so I’m looking forward to a new manga that has some hints on the subject.

■ Content Tokyo Special Lectures: AI × Creativity, related articles (4 articles)

・【Article 1】 Flash Report~Could AI Bring the Works of Osamu Tezuka into Reality?~

・【Article 2】Dr. Matsubara Hitoshi, Lecture Report~Artificial Intelligence and Creativity~

・【Article 3】Report on Satoshi Kurihara’s Talk~ The Essence of Creativity and the Key to Innovation by AI ~

・【Article 4】Report on Hiroshi Yamakawa’s Talk~Artificial Minds and Creativity~


* Osamu Tezuka’s Digital Clone Project
In Atom: The Beginning, the Nerima University Lab 7 is the laboratory of the young Drs. Tenma and Ochanomizu, later to go on to create Atom. This project aims to create such a place in reality, starting with actual AI researchers, and aiming to develop an Osamu Tezuka Digital Clone AI, a creative AI entity which could help creators with their work.
For inquiries, please contact:

*The anime series Atom: The Beginning airs on NHK every Saturday at 11:00pm!

*This comic is currently being serialized in the monthly comic magazine Heros, and six separate volumes are now for sale!

*FRI supports Atom: The Beginning, Content Tokyo’s special lecture, and the Osamu Tezuka Digital Clone Project.


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